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自考《英语词汇学》复习资料第八章

2018-04-08 来源: 互联网

  Chapter 8

  Context is very important for the understanding of word-meaning because the meaning is influenced immediately by the linguistic context, and in many cases by the whole speech situation as well.

  Types of context

  In a narrow sense, it refers to the words, clauses, sentences in which a word appears.

  This is known as languished context with may cover a paragraph, a whole chapter and even the entire book.

  In a broad sense, it includes the physical situation as whole. this is called extra-linguistic or non-linguistic context, which embrace the people, place, and even the whole culture background.

  The extra-linguistic context may extend to embrace the entire culture background.

  trade union in western countries/in China

  Landlord in Chinese/in western country weekend

  Linguistic context can be subdivided into lexical context and grammatical context

  Lexical Context – refers to the words occur together with the word in question. The meaning of the word is often affected and defined by the neighboring word.

  Grammatical context – The meanings of a word may be inflected by the structure in which it occurs.

  Generally speaking, the immediate verbal context, either lexical or grammatical, will suffice for interpreting meaning of a word

  As indicated. however, there are cases where the meaning of a word may remain a puzzle until a whole paragraph, a chapter or even a whole book covered.

  the role of context content has three major function

  elimination of ambiguity

  Ambiguity often arises due to polysemy and homonymy. When a word with multiple meanings used in inadequate context, it creates ambiguity.

  He is a hard businessman.

  Jone ran the egg and spoon race.

  John ran the egg and spoon race and won second place.

  Homonymy is another cause of ambiguity as tow separate words share the same form.

  Grammatical structure can also lead to ambiguity.

  indication of referents

  English has a large number of words used to refer directly to people, time, place, etc. without clear context, the reference can be very confusing

  provision of clues for inferring word meaning

  1. definition

  2. explanation

  3. example

  4. synonym

  5. antonym

  6. hyponym

  7. relevant details

  8. word structure

  Chapter 9

  1.Idiom—idioms consist of set phrases and short sentences, which are peculiar to the language in question and loaded with the native cultures and ideas. Strictly speaking, idioms are expressions that are not readily understandable from their literal meanings of individual elements. In a broad sense, idioms may include colloquialisms, catchphrases, slang expressions, proverbs,etc.

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